Tips to diagnose Pneumothorax





1.       Congenital

a.       Cystic fibrosis.

b.      Kartagner’s syndrome:  situs inversus, dextrocardia, sinusitis, bronchiectasis & immotile cilia of the respiratory mucosa.

2.       Acquired:

a.       Bronchial obstuction with distal collapse.

                                                              i.      Obstucting lesion maybe:

1.       Inside the lumen – foreign body or thick secretions

2.       In the wall – sticture or tumor

                                                            ii.      From outside

1.       Enlarged lymphnode or parenchymal lung fibrosis.

b.      Bronchial infections with destruction of elastic tissue in the wall and peri- bronchial fibrosis. E.g . broncho Pneumonia, chronic bronchitis.


1. Bronchiectasis following pulmonary T.B.

·         Primary T.B.: lymphadenopathy

·         Secondary T.B.: paranchymal fibrosis

2. Middle lobe syndrome- obstruction of the Rt.middle lobe.

Bronchus by lymphadenopathy (primary T.B. or bronchogenic carcinoma) leading to distal collapse & bronchiectasis.


Distribution:- usually segmental, basal, more on Lt. Side, upper lobe bronchiectasis is less common & almost secondary to T.B. Bronchiectasis maybe loacalized anywhere according to the cause.