a. Cystic fibrosis.
b. Kartagner’s syndrome: situs inversus, dextrocardia, sinusitis, bronchiectasis & immotile cilia of the respiratory mucosa.
a. Bronchial obstuction with distal collapse.
i. Obstucting lesion maybe:
1. Inside the lumen – foreign body or thick secretions
2. In the wall – sticture or tumor
ii. From outside
1. Enlarged lymphnode or parenchymal lung fibrosis.
b. Bronchial infections with destruction of elastic tissue in the wall and peri- bronchial fibrosis. E.g . broncho Pneumonia, chronic bronchitis.
1. Bronchiectasis following pulmonary T.B.
· Primary T.B.: lymphadenopathy
· Secondary T.B.: paranchymal fibrosis
2. Middle lobe syndrome- obstruction of the Rt.middle lobe.
Bronchus by lymphadenopathy (primary T.B. or bronchogenic carcinoma) leading to distal collapse & bronchiectasis.
Distribution:- usually segmental, basal, more on Lt. Side, upper lobe bronchiectasis is less common & almost secondary to T.B. Bronchiectasis maybe loacalized anywhere according to the cause.